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Definitions of Marketing

Definitions of Marketing

Definition of Marketing - What is Marketing

What Is Marketing?

The AMA’s definitions of marketing and marketing research 是否每三年由五名活跃的学者组成的研究小组进行审查和重新批准/修改.

Definition of Marketing

Marketing is the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large. (Approved 2017)

Definition of Marketing Research

市场调查是连接消费者的功能, customer, and public to the marketer through information—information used to identify and define marketing opportunities and problems; generate, refine, and evaluate marketing actions; monitor marketing performance; and improve understanding of marketing as a process. 市场调研指定了解决这些问题所需的信息, designs the method for collecting information, manages and implements the data collection process, analyzes the results, and communicates the findings and their implications. (Approved 2017)

Definition of Brand

A brand is a name, term, design, symbol, 或任何其他特征,以区分一个销售者的商品或服务与其他销售者的不同.

ISO品牌标准补充说,品牌“是一种无形资产”,旨在“在利益相关者的头脑中创造独特的形象和联想”, thereby generating economic benefit/values.”

Types of Marketing

Influencer Marketing

根据国家广告商协会(ANA)的数据, 影响者营销专注于利用那些对潜在买家有影响力的个人,并围绕这些个人进行营销活动,以推动品牌信息进入更大的市场.

In influencer marketing在美国,品牌不是直接向一大群消费者营销,而是激励或补偿 influencers (which can include celebrities, content creators, customer advocates, and employees) to get the word out on their behalf.

Relationship Marketing

根据国家广告商协会(ANA)的数据, 关系营销是指将消费者进行细分以建立忠诚度的策略和策略.

Relationship marketing leverages database marketingbehavioral advertising and analytics to target consumers precisely and create loyalty programs. 

Viral Marketing

Viral marketing is a marketing 促进和鼓励人们传递营销信息的现象.


Green Marketing

Green marketing refers to the development and marketing of products that are presumed to be environmentally safe (i.e.,旨在尽量减少对自然环境的负面影响或改善其质量).

This term may also be used to describe efforts to produce, promote, package, 回收产品的方式要对生态问题敏感或有反应.

Keyword Marketing

Keyword marketing involves placing a marketing message in front of users based on the specific keywords and phrases they are using to search.[1]

这种方法的一个关键优势是,它让营销人员能够在正确的时间用正确的信息接触到正确的人. 对于许多营销人员来说,关键字营销的结果是放置一个 ad when certain keywords are entered.

Note that in SEO,这个术语指的是在搜索结果中实现排名.

Guerilla Marketing

游击营销描述的是一种非常规和创造性的营销方式 marketing 用最少的资源获得最大的结果的策略.

Outbound Marketing

Outbound marketing 传统营销的新术语是什么时候出现的 inbound marketing came into popular use. 

In outbound marketing, 市场营销者通过电视等方式与顾客建立联系, radio and digital display advertising. 它经常被用来影响消费者对一个品牌的意识和偏好. 

Inbound Marketing

入站营销是一种营销方式,在这种营销方式中,顾客主动与营销人员接触,以回应各种吸引他们注意的方法. 这些方法包括电子邮件营销、事件营销、内容营销和网页设计.

One purpose of inbound marketing, which includes content marketing, 是将业务作为有价值的信息和问题解决方案的来源吗, thereby fostering customer trust and loyalty.

Search Engine Optimization

搜索引擎优化(SEO)是一个发展的过程 marketing/technical plan to improve visibility within one or more search engines. Typically, this consists of two elements.

On a technical side, SEO refers to ensuring that a website 可以被主要的搜索引擎正确地编入索引,并包括适当关键字的使用, content, code, and links.

On the marketing side, SEO refers to 定位特定关键字的过程,网站应该在搜索中“赢”. 这可以通过修改网站,使其在搜索引擎用来确定排名的算法中获得高分来实现, or by purchasing placement with individual keywords. 通常,SEO程序是几种元素和策略的混合. [2]

Note: When SEO 是用来描述个人的,它代表搜索引擎优化器.

Content Marketing

内容营销是一种创造和分发技术 valuablerelevant 和一致的内容吸引和获得一个明确的定义 audience—with the objective of driving profitable customer action.

根据国家广告商协会(ANA)的数据, content marketing involves various methods to tell the brand story. 越来越多的营销人员将他们的广告转变为内容营销/故事营销,以创造更多的粘性和与消费者的情感联系. 

4 Ps of Marketing


A product is defined as a bundle of attributes (features, functions, benefits, and uses) capable of exchange or use, usually a mix of tangible and intangible forms.

因此,产品可以是一种想法,一种物理实体(商品),或一种 service, or any combination of the three. 它的存在是为了实现个人和组织的目标.

而“产品和服务”这个术语偶尔会被用到, 产品是一个包含商品和服务的术语.


价格是表示货币数量的正式比率, goods, or services needed to acquire a given quantity of goods or services.

It is the amount a customer must pay to acquire a product

Place (or Distribution)

Distribution refers to the act of marketing and carrying products to consumers. 它也被用来描述给定产品的市场覆盖范围.

In the 4 Ps, distribution is represented by place or placement.


根据国家广告商协会(ANA)的数据, 促销营销包括鼓励短期购买的策略, influence trial and quantity of purchase, and are very measurable in volume, share and profit.

Examples include couponssweepstakes, rebates, premiums, special packaging, cause-related marketing and licensing.

Visit the Marketing Dictionary for additional definitions.

2017 Panel

  • Bernard Jaworski, Peter F. 克莱蒙特研究生院管理学和文科德鲁克主席
  • Richard Lutz, J.C. Penney Professor of Marketing, University of Florida
  • Greg W. 马歇尔,查尔斯·哈伍德,罗林斯学院市场营销与战略教授
  • Linda Price, Philip H. 奈特主席,俄勒冈大学市场营销学教授
  • Rajan Varadarajan, 大学特聘教授,市场营销学特聘教授,福特公司市场营销学主席 & E-Commerce, Texas A&M University